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中国工资上涨 柬埔寨受益 Cambodia reaps benefit of China’s rising wages

作者:英语作文网   来源: www.en369.cn  

中国工资上涨 柬埔寨受益 Cambodia reaps benefit of China’s rising wages

Inside a gleaming white and blue garment factory in Cambodia stand rows of second-hand Singer sewing machines transported from a plant in China that closed last year.
在柬埔寨一座蓝白相间、闪闪发亮的服装厂里,摆放着一排排二手胜家(Singer)缝纫机。这些缝纫机是从去年关门的一家中国工厂运送过来的。
The Hong Kong-headquartered Top Form, which has 700 workers at the plant, is one of many businesses that have moved to Cambodia, mostly from China, in the past year or so to take advantage of its lower wages, which are roughly a third of those in China.
隶属于香港黛丽斯公司(Top Form)的这家工厂共有700名工人。过去一年多来,大量企业把工厂(多数来自中国)搬到了柬埔寨,因为这里的工资水平更低,大致相当于中国的三分之一。黛丽斯就是其中一家。
Double-digit wage increases in China and a shortage of factory labour have prompted several companies to move to cheaper countries such as Vietnam, Bangladesh and Indonesia.
中国的工资水平呈两位数增长,工厂劳动力短缺,导致多家企业搬迁到越南、孟加拉和印尼等成本更低的国家。
Angie Lau, chief executive of bra-maker Clover in Hong Kong, says her company has found operating in Cambodia easier than in India where it also operates a plant and that productivity at the Cambodian plant is rising fast towards levels in its Chinese factories.
文胸生产商高华(Clover)的行政总裁刘敏姿(Angie Lau)表示,她的公司发现,在柬埔寨经营比在印度更容易。该公司在印度也有一家工厂。而且,其柬埔寨工厂的生产效率正在迅速赶上其中国工厂的水平。
Cambodia, a country of just 15m, is seeing its economy transformed by the influx and new factories are sprouting up around its capital Phnom Penh and near the Thai border as investment also shifts from Thailand.
柬埔寨只有1500万人口,大批外国企业涌入正在改变该国经济状况。在首都金边的周边地区,一座座工厂拔地而起。也有一些投资是从泰国转移过来的,因此柬埔寨毗邻泰国交界处也出现了许多工厂。
The inflow of investment picked up sharply last year as Hong Kong Chinese companies and Japanese companies sought cheaper labour. Peter Brimble, senior country economist for the Asian Development Bank, estimates that overall foreign direct investment jumped to $1.5bn in 2012, up from $850m in 2011, because of investment in manufacturing, agriculture and the finance sector.
去年,柬埔寨的外来投资规模急剧增加,这主要是由于中国香港企业及日本企业为寻找更加廉价的劳动力而纷纷以该国为投资目的地。亚洲开发银行(ADB)高级国别经济学家彼得•布林布尔(Peter Brimble)估计,由于制造业、农业和金融业的投资增加,柬埔寨外来直接投资(FDI)总额从2011年的8.5亿美元猛增至2012年的15亿美元。
Larry Kao, general manager of Medtecs, a Taiwanese company, which produces surgical suits at its 4,000-employee factory in the Kampong Cham province in the central lowlands of Cambodia near Vietnam, quips: “So many foreign companies are competing for workers we wish the population would double.”
台湾美德向邦医疗国际股份有限公司(Medtecs)在位于柬埔寨毗邻越南的中央低地的磅湛省(Kampong Cham province)拥有一家生产手术衣的工厂,员工有4000人。该公司总经理Larry Kao打趣道:“大批外国企业在争夺工人,我们都希望柬埔寨人口能翻一番就好了。”
Mr Kao estimates factory wages have risen to $110-$130 a month, compared with $85-$100 three years ago. However, that is still less than China’s factory wages of $400 a month.
Larry Kao估计,柬埔寨工人工资已经涨到每月110-130美元,而三年前为85-100美元。不过,这仍低于中国工人月薪400美元的水平。
In addition to mainland Chinese and Hong Kong investors moving jobs from China, several Japanese companies have invested in the country in the past year, especially in the area close to the Thai border.
除了中国大陆和香港的投资者把生产业务从中国迁到柬埔寨外,过去一年来数家日本企业也到柬埔寨投资,尤其是在接近泰国边境的地区。
In early December, Hun Sen, Cambodia’s prime minister, attended the groundbreaking ceremony for a mall in Phnom Penh being built by Japan’s Aeon, whose president promised to invest in four more.
去年12月初,柬埔寨首相洪森(Hun Sen)出席了日本永旺(Aeon)在金边兴建的一座商场的奠基仪式。永旺的总裁承诺,还会再投资兴建四座商城。
The languid tempo of the city’s traffic is changing with many SUVs – some driven by Chinese businessmen – muscling their way through the streets and Chinese restaurants are packed with executives from mainland China.
金边以往较为清闲的交通也因大量SUV汽车的涌现而改变,部分车辆是中国商人开的。中式餐馆也塞满了来自中国大陆的企业管理人员。
However, with such a surge of investment comes problems ranging from wage inflation to land grabs as industrialisation gathers pace. Medtecs saw a three-day strike last year – partly over wages – but Mr Kao says he is lucky because his factory only has two unions. “I have heard of factories with 14 unions, which would be like having so many wives,” he says.
不过,在投资涌入的同时,工业化速度加快也引发了一系列问题,如工资通胀、侵占土地等。去年美德向邦的员工罢工了3天,部分原因是对工资不满。不过Larry Kao表示,他很幸运,因为他的工厂只有两个工会。他说:“我曾听说,有的工厂工会数量达14个,这就像娶了一大群老婆一样。”
The rapid development and the need to clear land for factories and large plantations has led to so many disputes that in 2011 the World Bank suspended all lending to Cambodia. In November, protesters who had suffered forced evictions congregated round the US embassy, ahead of Barack Obama’s visit to the country. Near a lake that has been filled in with sand in the capital, a 72-year-old woman complains that she was beaten till her head bled and then jailed when she protested against being evicted from her home.
经济高速发展,加上必须为工厂和大型种植场腾出土地,导致柬埔寨出现大量纷争,结果世界银行(World Bank)2011年中止了提供给柬埔寨的所有贷款。去年11月,遭到强制拆迁的抗议者在美国总统巴拉克•奥巴马(Barack Obama)访问柬埔寨之前,聚集在美国大使馆周围。在金边一个填满沙子的湖边,一位72岁的妇女控诉道,她被从家里强行驱赶时,因为反抗被打得头破血流,还被关进了监狱。
Like China, Cambodia’s government is criticised for its human rights record. But foreign investors see it as welcoming to overseas money and are impressed by the relatively well-educated young workforce. Mr Brimble says a Japanese small motor manufacturer, which opened a plant in Cambodia last year, told him its plant was operating at 80 per cent of the efficiency of its factory in China. Clover’s Ms Lau says while “China has the best skill set, Cambodia is getting up to par with China”.
和中国一样,柬埔寨政府的人权纪录也饱受诟病。但外国投资者认为,柬埔寨政府欢迎海外资金。他们对柬埔寨教育程度相对较高的年轻劳动力印象深刻。布林布尔表示,去年一家日本小型汽车制造商在柬埔寨开了一家工厂,这家公司的人告诉他,该工厂的生产效率相当于他们公司在中国工厂的80%。高华的刘敏姿表示,尽管“中国拥有最好的技术工人,但柬埔寨正在迎头赶上。”
Speaking on condition of anonymity, a couple of foreign businessmen applaud the efficiency of being able to obtain a one-year business visa in a day, but say the “expediting fee” should be made a government fee so it could be paid legally.
两位不愿透露姓名的外国商人在一天之内就拿到了为期一年的商务签证,他们对这种效率赞叹有加。但他们表示,“加急费”应该设为一项行政收费,这样就能合法地支付了。
Mr Brimble of the ADB says it is not corruption that is hobbling investors, but the shortage of skills for factories, which need engineers and local supervisors, and the high cost of electricity. Electricity costs substantially more than in neighbouring Vietnam and is unreliable in many areas. “If you have a business that needs consistent electricity, you need a good generator,” says one foreign investor.
不过,亚洲开发银行的布林布尔表示,阻碍投资者的不是腐败,而是工厂所需的工程师和本地管理人员匮乏,而且用电成本过高。柬埔寨的电费远高于邻国越南,很多地区供电也不稳定。一名外国投资者表示:“如果你的工厂需要连续供电,你就必须准备一台性能良好的发电机。”
Michael Choy, who manages Top Form’s plant in Phnom Penh, says while he would like to increase his workforce to 2,000, he is constrained by the need to train workers for the taxing work of making lingerie at the factory. The expensive lingerie in Top Form’s range of products are still made by the company’s two remaining factories in China with the workers in Cambodia limited to bras with little embroidery.
黛丽斯金边工厂的经理Michael Choy表示,尽管他想把工人增加到2000人,但他必须培训工人,教他们学习如何制作样式繁复的内衣,扩充人手因此受到限制。在黛丽斯的产品线中,高档内衣仍由该公司在中国剩下的两家工厂生产,而柬埔寨的工人仅限于生产花样简单的文胸。
While no one is complaining of labour shortages yet, garment manufacturers say it will become a constraint. “It is impossible for Cambodia to take all the orders shifting out of China,” says Ken Loo, secretary-general of the national garment manufacturers association, pointing to Cambodia’s garment exports of just $4.3bn last year. Vietnam and Bangladesh had textile and apparel exports of about $20bn while China’s were $270bn in the first 10 months of last year.
尽管目前尚无人抱怨劳动力短缺,但服装制造商表示,未来劳动力短缺会成为约束。全国服装制造商协会秘书长Ken Loo表示:“柬埔寨不可能吸收从中国转移出来的所有订单。”他指出,去年柬埔寨的服装出口额仅为43亿美元。越南和孟加拉的纺织品和服装出口规模约为200亿美元,而中国去年前10个月的纺织品及服装出口额就达2700亿美元。
“Orders shifting out of China are tens of billions. No country in southeast Asia could take that on its own,” says Mr Loo. As work moves from China to places such as Bangladesh and Cambodia, where wages rise as a result, consumers in the west will have to get used to higher prices for garments and shoes.
Ken Loo表示:“从中国转移出来的订单价值数百亿。东南亚没有哪个国家能够独自吸收这些订单。”随着工作从中国转移到孟加拉和柬埔寨等地,西方的消费者将必须适应服装和鞋子价格上涨的局面,因为这些地区的工资也会水涨船高。

译者:倪卫国
 

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