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印度“移动钱包”的“钱景” M-Pesa’s cautious start in India

印度“移动钱包”的“钱景” M-Pesa’s cautious start in India 
 


Rajasthan seems an improbable setting for a technology revolution. Yet for the past year the historic northern state has provided the testing ground for an idea that some believe could help bring basic financial services to hundreds of millions of Indians for the first time – in the form of mobile money.
拉贾斯坦邦(Rajasthan)似乎不像一个技术变革之地。但在过去一年里,这个历史悠久的北方州成为一个创意的试验场。一些人认为,此举有望首次为数亿印度人带来基本金融服务——以“移动钱包”的形式。
In November 2011 just outside Jaipur, a city better known for its hill-top forts and charming pink buildings, Vodafone, the UK-based mobile phone company, announced plans to pilot M-Pesa. This service, pioneered in Africa, lets users store cash on their phones and use it either to shop, pay bills or send money to others.
2011年11月,在斋浦尔(Jaipur)这个以山顶城堡和充满魅力的粉色建筑著称的城市郊外,总部位于英国的移动通信运营商沃达丰(Vodafone)宣布了试运行M-Pesa业务的计划。这项始于非洲的服务,让用户将现金存到手机里,用来购物、支付账单或者是转账汇款。
Since then Vodafone, which is India’s second-largest mobile operator, has been busily signing up agents in nearby villages, who are often simply small shop owners in dusty roadside shacks, who then sell the product to locals. The trial went well, and last month the company announced plans to roll it out nationwide.
自那以来,身为印度第二大移动运营商的沃达丰一直忙于在附近村庄招募代理人(往往是尘土飞扬的路边小店的店主),由其向当地人销售产品。试验进展不错,最近该公司宣布将在全国展开这项业务。
Mobile money’s admirers talk up its many benefits, which include the possibility of ending financial exclusion across the developing world. These champions point especially to successes in Kenya, where M-Pesa has become a virtual currency, used by more than seven in 10 adults, who together make more transactions each year than Western Union, the money transfer service company, sends globally.
崇尚“移动钱包”的人大肆宣扬它的诸多好处,其中包括有望终结在发展中国家普遍存在的“金融排斥”现象。这些拥护者特别提到了肯尼亚的成功,在这里M-Pesa已成为一种虚拟货币,超过70%的成年人使用,每年的交易数量超过西联汇款(Western Union)。
But even staunch supporters admit that the idea has failed to take off in most of the other countries in which it has been tried – while India is likely to be the service’s biggest challenge yet.
但是,就连坚定的支持者也承认,此类服务在大多数其他国家的尝试都失败了,而印度可能是该服务迄今面对的最大挑战。
In India the opportunity is clear enough. More than half the country’s 1.2bn population have no bank account, but it is the world’s second- largest mobile phone market, with more than 900m subscribers. If only a fraction of these customers sign on, India could easily become the world’s mobile money leader.
在印度,机遇是显而易见的。印度12亿人口中一半以上没有银行账户,但该国是全球第二大移动电话市场,用户超过9亿。即使只有小部分人注册,印度也可能轻松成为全球“移动钱包”服务的领头羊。

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